1 – GERMS ARE AFTER YOUR FOOD
– Be aware of the number of germs in food.
– Measure the speed at which germs spread in food.
Material: Sheet 1
Time : 45 minutes.
– Give out the sheet, get the pupils to read the introduction and comment on it.
– Do the exercise.
– Emphasize what these figures represent.
– Explain that germs spread more quickly in a warm damp place, on germ-carrying food which is particularly susceptible (raw meat, fresh dairy products, etc.), as well as the necessity of storing foods separated from each other, at the correct temperature.
– All together conclude that Sam was very unwise to leave the minced meat in the sun.
1 – 11 o’clock
2 – 1184 germs.
3 – 1st burger: 592 germs ; 2nd and 3rd burgers : 296 germs each.
2 – DRINKING WATER
– Realize that there can be problems with water.
– Be aware of the microbiological risk in drinking water in the countryside.
Material: Sheet 2
Time : 30 minutes.
– Question the children on what they know about water: its use in everyday life, how it can harm our bodies or do them good, world needs, shortages, rainfall, etc.
– Do the exercise individually or collectively.
– All together conclude that some water is safe to drink, and other water should never be drunk as it could make us ill.
– Point out that we should not keep bottled water too long. After a few days it is no longer good to drink.
– Flush the toilet / water the garden / wash the car / wash yourself / drink / cook food / wash up / do the washing / clean the house / have a shower / clean your teeth.
– 1) Run / before; 2) Refrigerator; 3) Store / closed; 4) Spreading / leave; 5) Used; 6) Cold water.
– F / F / F / F / T.
3 – MOULD
– Find out what mould is and the presence of germs in all foods.
– Understand the idea of “useful” germs.
Material: Sheet 3
Time : 30 minutes + observation over 3 days.
The exercise is carried out in two stages: experiment + written result.
– Take a piece each of bread and fruit.
– Make them dirty by dropping them in the playground.
– Place the dirty pieces in a bag together with damp cotton wool.
– Prepare two control bags, one with bread, one with fruit
– Put the bags in a warm dark place.
– Follow the progress of the food over 3 days.
– Discuss the results.
– Emphasize what mould is, and a basic food hygiene rule :
Mould is a type of fungus.
If a food has gone mouldy, it should not be eaten.
Not all moulds are dangerous to health.
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4 – CARBON DIOXIDE FROM YEAST
– Discover how yeast works.
– Small glass jar.
– Warm water
– Sachet of yeast.
Time : 15 minutes.
– Pour some warm water into the glass jar.
– Sprinkle with yeast.
– Observe the immediate chemical reaction (this happens very quickly): bubbles of carbon dioxide appear.
– Explain the release of carbon dioxide during fermentation. Draw a parallel with what happens when we bake a cake.
– Talk about other ways carbon dioxide is produced :
Breathing (exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs).
Volcanoes (extremely polluting).
Fermentation of fruit (grapes, apples) and plants (hops) to make wine, cider, beer, etc.
Fire (danger of defective heating appliances).
5 – PASTEURIZATION
– Demonstrate how high temperature kills germs, looking at the case of pasteurization.
Material:Sheet 4 and 5
Time: 45 minutes.
The exercise can be done individually or collectively.
– Ask the pupils to look up “Pasteur” and “pasteurization” in the dictionary.
– Do the exercise.
– Ask the pupils to name some pasteurized drinks (fruit juice, milk, beer, cider, etc.).
– Emphasize that most drinks today have been through a pasteurization process, a system developed by Louis Pasteur :
Beer, cider and fruit juice: these are bottled, capped, then sprayed with increasingly hot water (up to 65-70°C) for twenty minutes and chilled by increasingly cold water.
Milk : this is heated to 85-90°C for 20 to 30 seconds, then chilled.
– Conclude all together that the longer foods are cooked at high temperature, the more germs are destroyed.
– Extend the exercise by explaining that a similar process is used for preserving some solid foods. These are sterilized for more than 3 minutes at 121°C, and the process is called canning.
– The teacher could suggest that pupils do some research on the inventor, Nicolas Appert.
– Louis Pasteur.
– Pasteur is also famous for the discovery of a rabies vaccine. This dreadful illness is caused by a virus which attacks the brain. Most common in animals, particularly foxes, it can be transmitted to man. Vaccination of dogs and cats is obligatory in some areas of France.
– Revealed word: beverages.
– Airtight / plastic / keep / pasteurized / seconds / preheated / cooled / germs / very high / sterilized / fewer.
– To pasteurize a liquid, it is heated to a very high temperature and then cooled rapidly.
– An opened carton of milk should be stored in the refrigerator / will keep for 2 to 3 days.
6 – HOW TO READ FOOD LABELS
– Be aware that different types of food keep for different lengths of time.
– Know how to read a food label.
– Food labels.
– Rough book.
– Sheet 6for every 2-4 children.
Time : 1 hour.
– A week beforehand ask the children to find wrappers at home from different kinds of food (frozen food, fresh food, long-life products, etc.).
– On the day of the activity, everyone brings one wrapper.
– Put all the wrappers together and divide them into product types : Dairy products / Fresh foods / Meat and fish / Non-perishable foods / Long-life products.
– One product type is chosen by each group (maximum 2 to 4 pupils).
– Each group is given the pupil’s sheet.
– The sheet should be read all together, and the text explained.
– Each group fills in the sheet for the product type chosen.
– Explain :
Place and type of storage recommended.
Length of storage varies according to the type of food.
– Conclude by emphasizing that food should not be eaten after the use-by date.
7 – THE GOOD ADVICE GAME
– Be aware of the importance of food hygiene.
– Learn hygiene basics used in food preparation.
Time : 30 minutes
– Set the scene : “It’s Mum’s birthday. Owen and Amy have a surprise for her: they will prepare the meal themselves ! What should they watch out for ?”
– Everyone together make up a simple menu, from starter to dessert.
– List the ingredients they will need.
– Tell the children that there are germs in all foods and explain how cooking (or not) destroys (or not) most of the germs.
– Ask the children to give advice on the best ways of ensuring that everything is hygienic (take the menu course by course) :
Clean the work surfaces.
Cooking utensils should not be used for different foods without being washed each time.
– Wash hands with hot water and soap before, during and after food preparation.
Wash fresh fruit and vegetables before serving or cooking.
Food to be cooked must be well cooked: timing and temperature are not the same for all foods.
Preparation should be quick. Don’t leave foods out of the refrigerator or lying open for too long. Only get food out just before you need it.
Serve food quickly. If left too long in a warm room, bacteria start to spread.
Leave the refrigerator door open for as short a time as possible.
Do not refreeze food that has been defrosted.
– Each piece of good advice gains a cleanliness point. The winner is Netoon of the class.
– The teacher can examine one or more topics in greater depth, depending on the expectations and capabilities of the children.
8 – FOOD AROUND THE WORLD
Discover how eating habits differ around the world.
Material : Sheet 7
Time : Variable.
– Ask the children for names of foreign dishes.
– Try to find out which country they come from.
– Suggest doing a little research for answers to the questions on the sheet.
– Suggest that some pupils give a presentation on a country and its eating habits.
– Sushi = Japan
– Hamburger = USA
– Couscous = Algeria
– Chili con carne = Mexico
– Goulash = Hungary
– Mousaka = Greece
– Ostrich steak = Australia
– Haggis = Scotland
– Biriani = India
– Jambalaya = West Indies
9 – FOOD HYGIENE EXHIBITION
– Consolidate food hygiene knowledge.
– Make other pupils and parents aware of the importance of food hygiene.
– Poster paper in different colours, large sheets of drawing paper.
– Felt tips, paint.
– Magazines to cut out.
Time : Variable.
– Suggest that the children put on a food hygiene exhibition, based on all they have learnt in class.
– List the various exhibits (posters, captions, drawings, photos, etc.).
– Share out the tasks among small groups.
– Each group should highlight one aspect of food hygiene :
The presence of germs in food.
Food storage (cold chain, refrigerator, food protected from moisture by canning, etc.)
Food preparation (wash fruit and vegetables, cook food, etc.)
Hygiene of work surfaces, cooking utensils and hands before, during and after food preparation.
– The exhibition should demonstrate the importance of good food hygiene, the need to keep foods separately and at the correct temperature for optimum storage.
– Show the exhibition to the school so other pupils and parents are made aware that food hygiene is important for health.
– Additional topic: the ideal refrigerator, filled with the children’s favourite food.
10 – THE MAGIC REFRIGERATOR
Language and imagination put to work on food hygiene.
Time : 1 hour.
– Go over the themes discussed during food hygiene lessons and ask the children to write a short essay.
– Subject: “The adventures of a Netoon lost in Magic Fridgeland”.
– Check that stories are consistent and discuss the variations between each adventure.
11 – FOOD HYGIENE GAMES
Material: Sheet 8
Time : 30 minutes each game.
– Find the answers collectively or individually.
– Revise the different food hygiene principles and teach the best hygiene habits for cooking.
1. False. We must get rid of all germs on the surface of food.
2. True. And sick people, too.
3. False. Ferments are used to make yoghurt or alcoholic drinks. Some moulds are used to make cheese (Roquefort, Camembert, etc.).
4. True. It shouldn’t come into contact with, or drip over, other food.
5. True. The rough surface harbours germs. Metal or plastic utensils are better.
6. False. Some germs still live at 80°C, others at 120°C. Temperature and length of cooking are critical.
7. False. Some parts don’t get hot enough to kill germs.
9. True. It is purified and checked several times a day.
10. False. Manufactured food is extensively quality-controlled. Fresh food should be taken care of too. And basic hygiene principles should be adhered to.
11. False. Food that has been defrosted should never be refrozen.