1. MOULD CULTURES
The objective is to identify the presence of germs on food.
- Pieces of fruit: lemons, oranges, cherries, peaches, etc. (Avoid apples as they don’t easily go mouldy.)
- Damp cotton wool.
- Airtight transparent plastic bags.
Time : 30 minutes + observation over 3 days.
- Ask the children to drop pieces of fruit in the playground.
- Put the dirty fruit in a plastic bag together with the damp cotton wool.
- Prepare a control bag with uncontaminated fruit.*
- Put the bags in a dark, warm place.
- Follow the progress of the fruit over 3 days.
- Discuss the results.
- Highlight: what are moulds?
Moulds are patches of fungus.
- Conclude: we must not eat mouldy food, because it is no longer edible.
* Remember: fruit is easily contaminated by our hands or a knife. Choose a whole fruit and wash and dry it carefully.
2. BUURKI HUNTING
Enable the child to visualize those areas in a kitchen where germs spread.
Material : Sheet 1
Time : 45 minutes.
- Give a sheet to each child and talk it through, relating the pictures to their own experiences :
Where are we ?
What is the little girl’s name ?
Is the kitchen clean ?
If we look more closely, what can we see ?
- Do the exercise : the children hunt the Buurkis.
- The exercise can be personalized by asking the children to colour the image.
- Put up some differing results and talk about them together.
- Go over again the various areas where germs spread, drawing attention to those which were not obvious.
- Pinpoint hygiene habits for the various areas by doing the last exercise.
Put the chicken away in the refrigerator / close the refrigerator door / clean the cooking utensils / do the washing-up / put the lid on the rubbish bin / close the lid on the pot of jam / wash her hands.
3. TO DRINK, OR NOT TO DRINK…
- Understand the importance of water in everyday life.
- Distinguish between drinking and non-drinking water.
Material: Sheet 2
Time : 30 minutes
The exercise can be done individually, in small groups or all together.
- Ask the pupils when/how we use water at home.
- Do the exercises.
- Emphasize that not all water is safe to drink.
- Be careful not to keep bottled water too long. After a few days it is no longer good to drink.
4. MILK AND GERMS
- Learn how germs spread.
- Introduce the concept of “useful” germs.
- Two jars of milk.
- Yoghurt culture (alternatively, some whole-milk yoghurt).
Time: 60 minutes
- Set up the experiment :
Put bacterial culture in one of jars (the other will be the control jar).
Place the two jars in the bain-marie.
- Observe the results with the children.
- Conclude with explaining that germs spread better in damp, warm conditions. Spend time on the idea of beneficial micro-organisms (yeast, yoghurt culture, penicillin, etc.).
5. WHY DO WE USE A REFRIGERATOR ?
- Get to know why we use a refrigerator.
- Learn some methods of preventing the spread of germs.
Material: Sheet 3
Time : 45 minutes
The exercise can be done individually, in small groups or all together.
- Question the children on the use of a refrigerator (explain the different shelves and temperatures).
- Do the exercise.
- Find out why it is necessary to protect fresh food from germs by applying simple hygiene rules:
Always wash hands before and after touching food.
Keep to storage temperature recommendations.
Do not let different unwrapped foods touch each other.
|Top||+ 6°C : eggs|
|Refrigerator||+ 4°C : butter, chicken, cheese|
|+ 3°C : pastries, cold meats|
|+ 2°C : fish, crab|
|+ 8°C : carrots, leeks, lettuce|
|Bottom||- 18°C : ice cream, frozen meat|
*It isn’t necessary to keep eggs in the refrigerator. Supermarkets, for instance, don’t keep them in chilled displays.
6. FOOD LABELS
- Understand that different foods need different treatments.
- Food labels.
Time: 60 minutes.
- A week before, ask the children to collect food labels from home.
- Assemble all the labels, grouping them by type of food: dairy products, fresh food, meat and fish, non-perishable items, long-life products.
- Read out to the class one label from each group.
- Explain differences of storage times and methods.
- Distribute labels to small groups of children. They should stick them on a sheet of paper in ascending order of use-by date.
- Conclude by emphasizing that food should not be eaten once the use-by date has passed.
7. RAW OR COOKED ?
- Find optimum food hygiene practices for different ways of eating food.
- Packaging, catalogues, etc. with pictures of food.
- Large sheet of paper or board.
- Felt pens, markers.
Time : 60 minutes.
The exercise can be done in small teams or collectively.
- A week before, ask the children to find pictures of food they like to eat.
- Tell the children that there are germs on all food, and how cooking (or not) destroys (or not) most germs.
- List the types of food that the children know and are illustrated in the pictures they brought.
- Let the children choose ten favourites.
- Group them according to how the food is treated. For each type of food, pupils should consider the following aspects:
Where is this particular food found ? (In a shop, in the garden, etc.)
Where should it be kept ? (In a dry cupboard, in the refrigerator, somewhere else.)
Is it eaten raw or cooked ?
- Find out optimum hygiene practices for preparing each type of food.
- List these in a table by type of food (eaten raw / cooked / as is).
|1.Wash my hands.|
|2. Make sure the work surface is clean.|
|3. Take the food out of the refrigerator / cupboard.||3. Take the food out of the refrigerator / cupboard.|
|4. Wash the food.||4. Some foods need to be washed.|
|5. Prepare the food.||5. Cook the food.|
|6. Eat it immediately.||6. Wash the cooking utensils after each use.|
|7. Clean the area where I cooked / ate.|
- Make sure the name of the chosen food is stated on each list.
- Ensure the pupils make their own suggestions for good food hygiene. Guide and correct them if necessary.
- Make a poster from the different listings, sticking food pictures on it and asking pupils to write the food hygiene practices highlighted in the exercise.
8. DIFFERENT WORLDS, DIFFERENT CUSTOMS
- Discover different eating habits and family customs in the world.
- Discover hygiene rules for mealtimes.
Material: Sheet 4
Time : 45 minutes.
- Ask the children to describe a mealtime at home.
- Point out what they eat with.
- Find out that there are many ways of eating (with knife, fork and spoon, with hands or with chopsticks) depending on country, continent and family customs.
- Explain that whichever way we eat, we must observe an essential hygiene rule: wash our hands before eating.
- Discover together the correct way to wash our hands (see Personal Hygiene).
- Read the text and do the exercise.
- Milk / knife / hands / plate / chopsticks.
- Revealed word : meals.
9. FOOD HYGIENE CHARTER
- Consolidate food hygiene knowledge.
- Promote with the class and all the school daily awareness of the importance of food hygiene.
- Large poster.
- Felt pens, paint, scissors, glue.
- Magazines to cut out.
Time : 1 hour.
- Question the children about what happens at home (Do their parents have a dishwasher ? Who does the cooking, Mum or Dad ? Are the children in the habit of washing their hands before every meal ? etc.).
- All together, revise subjects treated in food hygiene lessons:
The presence of germs on food and in the kitchen.
Storage (arrangement in the refrigerator, protection from damp, food labels, etc.).
Eating (raw foods, cooked foods, basic hygiene habits, etc.).
- Emphasize important parts of everyday practice.
- Draw up the food hygiene charter (e.g. 1. Always wash hands before eating).
- Mount it on the poster and illustrate with a drawing or cutouts.
- Hang up in the classroom or in the school.
- Regularly check with the children if they observe the charter (leaving the canteen or after playtime, etc.).
10. RECIPE : CRUNCHY ALPHABET !
- Apply food hygiene principles while actually cooking.
- Revise the alphabet.
- Sheet 5
- 125g ground almonds.
- 2 egg whites, unbeaten.
- 125g caster sugar.
- 125g flour.
- Template of alphabet letters for each group.
- Aluminium foil.
- Blunt knives.
- Prepare paper letters.
- Mix ingredients and leave dough to rest in the refrigerator for at least an hour.
- Sprinkle a little flour on the table. Roll out the dough to about 3 mm thickness.
- Place the letters on the dough and cut round them with a knife.
- Add icing if you like (mix 125g icing sugar with an egg white until smooth, apply with a brush, leave half an hour to set).
The children can use the letters to write their names !
A two-part activity over 2 days :
- Preparation (cut out letters + mixing the dough) : 1 hour.
- Making biscuits : 1 hour.
- Divide the class in groups of 4 to 5.
- Prepare the alphabet letters.
- Go together to wash hands.
- Share out the tasks for making the recipe.
- Emphasize the importance of cleaning utensils between each stage and at the end.
- This recipe could provide an opportunity for meeting parents and other pupils at a tea organised by the children.
11. THE FOOD TRAIN
Understand the need for a varied diet.
- Board or large sheet of paper on which teacher draws a locomotive and 6 wagons.
- Each wagon represents a food family.
- Felt pens, glue.
Time : 20-30 minutes over a week.
- For a week, draw an illustration of the canteen menu.
- Compare food eaten each day. List what’s eaten at every meal (bread, water, etc.) and possible substitutions between meat, fish, eggs.
- From what the pupils eat every day, list the main food families:
- Meat, eggs, fish.
- Milk, cheese, cream.
Fruit and vegetables.
Fats (butter, oil, margarine).
Bread, sugar, pastries, dried vegetables.
- Suggest to the children that the food families are the wagons: the locomotive represents the body. It must be fuelled each day with the contents of each wagon (different types of food).
- The pupils play at loading the trains each time they eat: after canteen meals, after tea, after eating a sweet, etc. Remind the children that too many sweet things cause tooth decay and obesity.
- Each child imagines a meal with his favourite food. All together compare his menu with the food train.
- Point out what is missing / what is too much. The children could suggest choosing something more suitable.