1. DOS AND DON’TS ( Sheet 1)
The objective is to get pupils to think about their hygiene habits.
Material: Sheet 1
Time: half an hour.
2. TRUE OR FALSE? (Sheet 1)
The objective is to deal with hygiene in general.
Material: Sheet 1
Time: 30 minutes.
1) True. Life expectancy increases annually.
2) False. Germs and diseases evolve, change, adapt and remain a permanent threat to man.
3) False. A very high number of diseases could be avoided with better hygiene.
5) False. New medicines can treat certain diseases, but since germs adapt, these medicines become ineffective, and we again have to find new ones.
6) True. A large number of germs live and multiply in water. Drinking or washing with impure water risks contamination.
7) False. Countries differ enormously from each other, particularly developing countries which lack the means to ensure appropriate hygiene.
3. WHAT IS A GERM? (Sheet 2)
The objective is to know the different types of germs which share our world, and their characteristics and differentiate between disease-causing and non disease-causing germs.
Time: 45 minutes.
Material: Sheet 2
4. PETRI DISH EXPERIMENT (Sheet 3)
– Realize the presence of germs in my surroundings and particularly on my hands.
– Show the importance of washing hands thoroughly.
– Find out a good way to wash hands.
– 4 petri dishes (or more).
– Adhesive tape – Sheet 3
Time: 1 30-minute session + 10 minutes observation for 2 days.
– In 4 petri dishes, do the following experiment:
1st dish: a pupil puts an unwashed hand on the substrate
2nd dish: a pupil puts a hand washed in water only
3rd dish: a pupil puts a hand washed in soap and water
4th dish: control dish.
– Identify and close the dishes with adhesive tape.
– Leave the dishes at ambient temperature, but out of direct sunlight.
– Observe the 4 petri dishes every day, analyse progress and fill in the pupil’s sheet.
– Encourage suggestions on the degree of traces in the dishes – what do they relate to?
– Everyone draw a conclusion, using as evidence connection between germs and the traces left by dirty hands: the more traces there are, the more germs on the hands.
– Conclude on the necessity of thorough hand washing and describe the procedure we should use.
5. RED BEAN OR GERM?
The objective is to demonstrate the idea of how germs and diseases are transmitted and to understand that some people are susceptible.
Material: 5 small bags with 10 red beans in each.
Time: half an hour.
– Give the 5 bags to 5 pupils.
– Each pupil with a bag takes out a bean and passes the bag to his neighbour.
– When the bags are empty, count the number of pupils with beans.
– Compare the passing round of the beans with the transmission of germs and diseases:
I have 1 bean = I have 1 germ.
I have 2 beans = I have 2 germs.
The more beans I have, the more germs I have, the more risk I have of getting ill, but I could get ill with just one germ.
– Explain to the pupils that some people are more susceptible to germs than others: babies, pregnant women, old people, sick people.
6. DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYGIENE
– Understand that hygiene is part of our daily routine.
– Identify different types of hygiene: personal hygiene, food hygiene, hygiene at home and hygiene with pets.
Material: Board or large sheet of paper.
Time: 1 hour.
– Some days before, ask pupils to cut out objects or products relating to hygiene from catalogues at home: each child to cut out one object only. (If he wishes, the teacher can ask the children to bring in a product or object linked to hygiene.)
– On the day, put all the cut-outs (or objects and products) together.
– Everyone to say the purpose and usage of the different objects or products, and then share them out.
– Define four major classifications of hygiene and stick the images on the board in 4 columns. Each column can be labelled with the corresponding Netoon.